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Canada and Commerce: A focus on Nigeria


The mechanism of commerce drives the economic growth of Canada. Some of the products exported by Canada to Nigeria include vehicles, manufacturing equipment, wheat, software, and aircraft whereas Nigeria exports mineral fuels and oils, cocoa, rubber and lead to Canada. A ratification process needs to be completed with regard to the Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (FIPA) that was signed in Abuja Nigeria on May 6, 2014. A double taxation agreement is already in force since 1999 and this is good. Canada has always shown a high-level commitment to helping Nigeria reduce poverty and help support a more peaceful Nigeria with an understanding that productivity only happens on the grounds of peace. It is important to encourage more trade with Nigeria to seriously reduce the extreme poverty ravaging Nigeria. Our Centre (CACERMDI) would foster this trade and would review all the raw materials available in Nigeria and CACERMDI shall help to showcase them to Canadian investors.

Saskatchewan’s Raw Materials



Raw Material is a term coined from two words “Raw” meaning “in its natural state or form” or unprocessed and “Material” meaning resource or substance.

Raw material as defined by CACERMDI is any unprocessed natural resource or substance modified to produce another resource or substance

In summary, raw material means natural resource.

Types of Raw Materials according to CACERMDI

There are three types of raw materials

  1. Mineral-based Raw Material
  2. Agro-allied or Agricultural Raw Material
  3. Fossil Fuels

A mineral raw material is a solid that is naturally occurring, homogeneous, and has been formed inorganically, having a definite chemical composition (or range of compositions), and an ordered atomic arrangement. Examples are potash, uranium, etc.

Saskatchewan has two of the most desirable minerals in the world – potash and uranium. The province has the largest potash industry in the world, accounting for about one-third of annual global production and hosting nearly half of the world’s known reserves. The world’s largest high-grade uranium deposits are located in northern Saskatchewan and that is the McArthur River Uranium Mine. However, if we talk of largest uranium deposit in the world without high grade, we would have Kazakhstan (in Central Asia) as the country with the largest deposit in the world.

Saskatchewan is the world’s leading supplier of uranium – 90 per cent is exported, with the remaining 10 per cent fuelling nuclear reactors in Canada. The province’s uranium is responsible for powering approximately one in 20 homes in the United States.

There is also significant unrealized potential for volcanogenic and sediment-hosted base metal deposits in supracrustal rocks of the Precambrian Shield of northern Saskatchewan. The Flin Flon mining camp, which straddles the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border, has been a substantial base metal producer for decades and is estimated to have the highest contained value of ore per square kilometre in Canada for this type of deposit.

There are areas with high gold potential that remain under-explored. In 2020, following six consecutive years of record-breaking production, the Seabee operation produced 81,686 ounces of gold. Gold exploration activity in Saskatchewan has traditionally focused on the Glennie and La Ronge greenstone belts and areas north and east of Lake Athabasca.

Saskatchewan’s Fort à la Corne area has one of the world’s largest kimberlite fields, with the surface area of some kimberlites exceeding 200 hectares. Star Diamond Corp., in partnership with Rio Tinto, is currently evaluating the Star-Orion South project, which is estimated to contain more than 66 million carats. Recent discoveries in the northeast part of the province have highlighted Saskatchewan’s potential for diamonds elsewhere.

The province also produces salt, kaolin, clays, as well as sodium and potassium sulphates and has strong potential for economic deposits of copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt, as well as rare earth and platinum group elements.

An Agricultural Raw Material refers to crop that is grown as well as animals reared to provide food, wool, and other products. Examples are cotton, raw latex, etc.

Saskatchewan is the world’s largest exporter of peas, lentils, durum wheat, mustard seed, canola, flaxseed and oats. Saskatchewan is recognized worldwide for the quality of its crops, and the province is also the second largest cattle-producing province in Canada.

Fossil fuels are raw materials from decomposing plants and animals. Examples are Coal, crude oil, and natural gas.

Saskatchewan produces coal, crude oil and natural gas

Saskatchewan is the second-largest oil producer in Canada and the sixth largest onshore producer in Canada and the United States.

The province has estimated oil reserves of almost 1.2 billion barrels.  Saskatchewan has refining and upgrading capacity, and an extensive network of pipelines.

Saskatchewan is home to a significant portion of the Bakken Formation, one of the largest conventional oil plays in North America.

Saskatchewan is the third-largest natural gas producer in Canada.

Estimated recoverable gas reserves are 1.8 trillion cubic feet.

Opportunities exist in shale gas in central and east-central Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan’s expertise in clean coal technologies is a good example of how the province is committed to “greening up” its conventional energy resources.

For participants Information about opportunities to service Saskatchewan’s oil and gas industry can be found in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain Requirement Guide

Raw Materials Conference Focus/Display

We are focused on potash and uranium

We have only potash to present

Potash from six different mines were delivered to CACERMDI on Friday June 2, 2023 by Nutrien (A reputable Canadian fertilizer company based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is the largest producer of potash and the third largest producer of nitrogen).

The samples were given at no cost to be exhibited for educational purposes as well as for investors of means to have a visual ofwhat we have in the Province and how they might participate in business of Nutrien. Also, we are displaying raw materials for posterity in the event of not having them again in the Province.

From the bottom of the mine to the top of the silo, Nutrien is continuously committed to feeding the future safely and with integrity each day, leading the agriculture industry in innovation and bold new thinking because the future needs food.

CACERMDI is committed to educating the general public on raw materials and the Centre provides a means to view raw material of any kind in the raw form without having to go to the mine site where these materials are being excavated from the earth. This initiative will help people that have fear of depth to still view these raw materials outside that place of origin, and also prevent them from getting exposed to toxic substances associated with the raw material of interest.

Source (s) of Canadian Coal Used As A Raw Material for Electricity Generation


Forty-one percent of electricity generated in Saskatchewan is from coal. The questions are: what is coal? how is it formed? Which Canadian Province has the highest occurrence or produces the highest amount of coal? Is the Canadian Government phasing out coal-fired electricity soon?

We shall begin as follow:

Coal is a raw material described as an energy- and carbon-dense black or brownish-black sedimentary rock formed from the remains of decayed plants submerged or buried within the earth and subjected to forces of heat and pressure for hundreds of millions of years, transforming in four stages chemically therefrom peat to lignite to bituminous and anthracite. The conditions to which the buried plants are subjected in terms of the geological forces determine the rating or rank. In other words, the greater the pressure and heat, the higher the rank of coal.

The carbon content of coal accounts for the energy content and it is believed that the heat released from coal when it is burned in the presence of oxygen is the accumulated heat taken in during the process of coal formation from dead plants.

It is crucial to note that very useful forms of other types of energy are obtainable from coal energy when coal is converted. The main use of coal is geothermal electricity generation and coal is also a key raw material in steel and cement production.

Globally, Canada comes number four as the largest exporter of metallurgical coal, after Australia, the United States and Russia.

Provincially, Alberta and British Columbia produce the highest amount of coal even though many parts of Canada have abundant coal.

Traditional coal-fired electricity would be phased out by the year 2030 according to the Canadian Federal Government’s announcement in 2018 of final regulations to phase out conventional coal-fired electricity but coal will still be used for metallurgical processes for many years to come.

Drilling and Facility Development for Lithium in Saskatchewan: Governmental Existing Incentives Now Expanded as A Driving Force.


Made from Lithium as raw material are energy-dense rechargeable batteries. These batteries are used in laptops, cell phones, electric vehicles etc.

Lithium is also a raw material used in glass production to increase glass durability, glass corrosion resistance, and glass thermal resistance.

Other items made from lithium as one of the raw materials include: glass-ceramic stovetops, glass containers, specialty glass, and fiberglass.

There is a greater reliance on both new and recycled sources of lithium for batteries.

Lithium has been classified as critical mineral raw material and it has net-zero emissions.

There are 31 commodities on Canada’s critical mineral list and Saskatchewan has occurrences of 23 of the 31. It is worthy of note to say that lithium is on that list as a Canadian Critical mineral considered as essential raw material for the sustainable economic success of Canada.

We got reliable information that the Government of Saskatchewan has expanded both its Oil and Gas Processing Investment Incentive (OGPII) and its Saskatchewan Petroleum Innovation Incentive (SPII) programs to include lithium extraction from subsurface brine as existing incentives expanded for lithium projects. 

These incentives position the province of Saskatchewan as one of the best locations in the world for Lithium resource development and in clear view is the opportunity for growth and innovation in the sector in Saskatchewan.

The Canadian Centre for Raw Materials Inc. (CACERMDI) learnt that Saskatchewan Geological Survey with the Saskatchewan Ministry of Energy and Resources has already confirmed the presence of lithium in some Saskatchewan aquifers from their brine sampling program, which began in 2011


CACERMDI further learnt that two companies named Prairie Lithium and Grounded Lithium are currently drilling for lithium in the province of Saskatchewan.

Prairie Lithium since 2020 uses proprietary technology to extract lithium from subsurface brine water and drilled their own well dedicated to lithium extraction in the fall off 2021 whereas Grounded Lithium commenced drilling its first lithium focused well in the summer of 2022.

Reacting to the incentives, Zach Maurer who is Prairie Lithium Chief Executive Officer (CEO), acknowledged the fact that the Saskatchewan Governmental incentives would further help all parties in the lithium industry.

Also, Gregg Smith, the President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Grounded Lithium said. “The geology of Saskatchewan chose us as the right place to pursue our lithium-from-brine project, and Saskatchewan stands out as a favourable jurisdiction for lithium resource development. We foresee significant growth over the next five years with drilling and facility development accompanied by the associated benefits of impactful job growth and royalty revenues.”

CACERMDI is aware that there are many more Lithium companies in Saskatchewan that have acquired subsurface mineral tenure to explore for lithium but are not yet to begin drilling

Which Canadian Province Ranks First in Mining Investment Attractiveness?


Canada has 31 minerals considered critical minerals for the sustainable economic success of Canada and its allies. The province of Saskatchewan has 23 with three already being mined including – potash, uranium, and helium. There is a near-term production potential for several others, including lithium, copper, and zinc. There are also strong prospects for longer-term production of nickel and rare earth elements (REE), such as lanthanum, neodymium and gadolinium.

Mining Week was proclaimed by The Government of Saskatchewan in 2022 with the theme, Saskatchewan’s Critical Minerals: Essential to Global Security and Supply Chains.

The purpose of Mining Week was to showcase Saskatchewan as a sustainable, ethical producer in traditional and emerging areas.

Saskatchewan ranks first in Canada for mining investment attractiveness! It is the world’s largest producer of potash and has almost half of the world’s potash reserve. It is the location of the world’s largest uranium mine and largest high-grade uranium deposits. It is also the world’s second-largest primary producer of uranium.

Other mineral raw materials mined in Saskatchewan are gold, coal, sodium sulphate, helium, and clays and has undeveloped deposits of diamonds, base metals and a host of critical minerals including Rare Earth Elements (REE), Platinum Group Metals and lithium.

High-quality, trustworthy and easily accessible geoscience and mineral resource information can be found on the Saskatchewan Mining and Petroleum GeoAtlas.

Mineral dispositions can be acquired remotely via the online Mineral Administration Registry Saskatchewan (MARS) system.

The Mineral Development Strategy includes geoscience investigations, airborne geophysical surveys and the Targeted Mineral Exploration Incentive, which provides a 25% rebate on eligible drilling costs up to a max of $50,000 per company in a specified region of high potential for base metals, precious metals, and diamonds.

For more information, please visit (1) https://www.saskatchewan.ca/business/investment-and-economic-development/key-economic-sectors/minerals#:~:text=The%20province%20also%20produces%20coal,earth%20and%20platinum%20group%20elements.

(2) https://www.saskatchewan.ca/government/news-and-media/2022/may/30/mining-week-showcases-saskatchewan-as-critical-minerals-powerhouse

Where to find Canadian Gold Mines


Gold is a precious metal. It is Canada’s most valuable mined commodity, with a production value of $13.7 billion according to a reliable government source.

Gold is mined in ten Canadian provinces and territories, with the majority coming from the provinces of Ontario and Quebec accounting together for 70% of mined gold production in the whole of Canada.

Canada is the fourth-largest global producer of gold.

Gold is useful for investment purposes and jewelry production (such as rings, necklaces, watches, etc.).

Investors generally could buy gold in the form of wafers, bars and coins, which are believed to offer a measure of protection from the risks of inflation and market volatility. Thus, we now understand that gold-backed exchange-traded funds (ETF) are another source of investment demand for gold.

Due to the excellent electric conductivity and resistance to corrosion properties of gold, approximately 8% of the demand for it is for use in technology applications, mostly as a component of micro-circuitry in a range of electronic products.

Canadian gold mines are found in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Newfoundland and Labrador, British Columbia, Alberta and Nova Scotia.

Apart from the gold mines in Canada, locations exist for recycling gold making gold to be continually available

Gold often in the form of old jewelry is melted down for reuse. A major motivation for consumers to sell or hold on to their gold jewelry is the price of gold in their respective currencies.

When gold prices rise, it usually increases the supply that is available for scrap (recycled gold). The recycled gold supply decreased to 1,150 tonnes in 2021, down from 1,292 tonnes in 2020.

Recovering gold from end-of-life electronics is an additional and major contributor to the global scrap supply.

Find out why Canada is the world’s largest producer and exporter of potash


Potash refers to a group of minerals and chemicals that contain potassium (chemical symbol K), a basic nutrient for plants and prime ingredient in fertilizer. It is observed that most of the potash produced is as potassium chloride (KCl), even though it is often measured and described in terms of potassium oxide (K2O) equivalence for consistency as a result of deposits that could have different percentages of potassium.

It is important to say that Canada remains the country with the world’s largest potash reserves, at 1.1 billion tonnes of potash (the equivalent to potassium oxide).

The primary use of potash is in the production of fertilizers which support plant growth, increase crop yield and disease resistance, and enhance water preservation. Potash in small quantities is also used in manufacturing potassium-bearing chemicals such as: detergents, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, water conditioners and alternatives to de-icing salt

The human diet contains potassium as an essential element that is required for the growth and maintenance of human tissues, muscles and organs, as well as the electrical activity of the heart.

Saskatchewan is the only Province in Canada that is referred to as the sole producer of Potash in Canada and the Province is the largest potash producer in the whole wide world and typically accounts for about 30 percent of global potash production.

Question: Why is Canada the world’s largest producer and exporter of potash

Answer: Saskatchewan

Which Province or Territory Makes Canada Third Largest Producer of Diamond Globally?


Most recent data available to CACERMDI indicates that Canada is the third largest producer of rough diamonds in the World by value and volume. There are four actively operating mines in Canada with three in Northwest Territories (Ekati Diamond Mine, Diavik Diamond Mine and Gahcho Kué Diamond) and one in Quebec (Renard Mine). There is a mine that is regarded as an advanced project and it is called the Star-Orion South project, located in central Saskatchewan.

Diamond is known as the hardest material and is industrially useful as an abrasive material in cutting, drilling, grinding and polishing. It has the highest thermal conductivity that any material could have at room temperature and this makes it useful as a sink to dissipate heat in electronic devices such as computers and diode lamps.

It is only the Renard mine in Quebec that has been recording an increase in terms of volume and the reason why others suffer a decrease is because of a weak and challenging diamond market presented internationally


Gold textured background

Copper is a metallic mineral raw material utilized in many manufacturing and construction industries in the world such as the production of solar cells and electric vehicles, electrical wires and cables etc. A trace amount of copper is an essential component in plant and animal food intake as living things for sustenance. Copper is soft and malleable, durable, machinable, corrosion resistant, and has the ability to be cast with high precision. The urgent need for a transition to green energy has dramatically increased the demand for copper in clean technologies of the world. However, Canada is one of the largest producers after nine countries.

This metallic raw material does not degrade or lose its chemical and physical properties during the process of recycling which helps to extend its use and minimize its waste.

In Canada, we have a robust copper recycling industry from which significant amounts of copper are recovered.

Over half of the copper from all Canadian mines comes from the province of British Columbia followed by Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba whereas the rest comes from other provinces and territories.

Do You Know The Two Canadian Provinces Currently Producing The Highest Amount of Coal for Export?

Heap of coal as background, top view

Coal comes from the remains of decayed trees compacted into the solid matter after several millions of years of chemical changes under pressure and heat. The energy content of coal is basically heat energy and is believed to be equal to the amount of heat that transformed it during production years ago. This heat energy can possibly be converted to other forms of valuable energy.

The primary use of coal is in electricity generation and coal is also a key ingredient in the production of steel and cement

Alberta and British Columbia are two Canadian provinces producing the highest amount of coal for export at this time with the most current data accounting for Canada being the world’s fourth-largest exporter of metallurgical coal. In North America alone, where there are twenty-three countries, Canada is the second largest producer of coal.

However, a lot of smog is generated with the use of coal, thereby making it environmentally unsuitable for modern Canada. Therefore, in support of Canada’s transition to cleaner energy by 2030, traditional coal-fired electricity would have been phased out according to a regulation announced in 2018 by the Government of Canada.

In the province of Ontario for instance, coal-fired power plants have been decommissioned and this is in line with the 2018 regulation as announced. It has significantly reduced the number of annual smog days in the province from 53 to zero.

How is aluminum produced? Where in Canada is it produced? And how can investors explore it?


There are fourteen minerals and metals which investors of means could explore in Canada. These include Aluminium, Coal, Copper, Diamonds, Lithium, Iron Ore, Graphite, Gold, Nickel, Platinum, Potash, Rare Earth Elements, Uranium and zinc.

In this article, we would discuss Aluminium.

Canada is one of the largest primary aluminum producers in the world. Others are China, India and Russia.

Canadian aluminum has the lowest carbon footprint when compared to aluminum from other world large producers because of the use of the latest generation of technologies and hydroelectricity in production.

Several tons of aluminum continued to be produced every year in Canada

The question is how is aluminum produced? Where in Canada is it produced? And how can investors explore it?

Please note that aluminum does not exist in nature in a pure form or state anywhere in the world. It is produced from bauxite ore, from which we have hydrated aluminum oxide (About 40% to 60%) mixed with silica and iron oxide respectively.

If an investor is interested in getting 1 tonne of aluminum, then 2 tonnes of alumina from 4-5 tonnes of bauxite is required.

In Canada, no bauxite is mined, rather it is imported. Possible places to import from are Australia, China, Brazil, India, Guinea, Nigeria etc. Note that Australia and Guinea have the largest bauxite reserve in the world.

However, aluminum production is associated with only two provinces in Canada. They are British Columbia and Quebec.

There is only one place in British Columbia for aluminum production and that is Kitimat, where there is one aluminum smelter.

In Quebec, there are nine aluminum smelters and one alumina refinery which is at Jonquière.